ORMES (Orbitally Rearranges Mono-Atomic Elements)

David Hudson: Superconductivity and Modern Alchemy: Has the Philosopher's Stone Been Found?
David Hudson: British Patent # GB 2,219,995 A --- Non-Metallic, Monoatomic Forms of Transitional Elements


This document may not be reproduced except in its entirety, and without changes.  Before trying any of the procedures described in this document, we advise you to thoroughly read this document several times.

This document was created by a group of people who believe that this information is of inestimable value to humanity and should be made widely available as soon as possible. The information here is declared to be in the public domain and we wish that it not become the sole property of any individual or group.

Here we describe some simple ways of making ORMUS so that readers can begin true scientific and intuitive experiments with these materials.

All of these methods are experimental.  The following information is presented to promote scientific research into the nature of these materials. Although these methods are based on our best knowledge at this time, further scientific research may prove some of these processes or theories to be inaccurate.


The processes described here have not all been tested extensively. We do not guarantee the procedures in this document, nor the results obtained by using them. To the extent that you use or implement these procedures or the products thereof, you do so at your own risk. In no event will the authors of this document be liable to you, anyone else, or any organization or government, for any damages arising from your use, or your inability to use these procedures or the product thereof. Apply these procedures at your own risk.


The material made by some of these methods has been tested by an independent lab using X-ray fluorescence and photo spectrometry to identify the emission spectra of m-state materials.  (The lab prefers to remain anonymous).  The m-state spectral emissions signature was a broad, flat band rather than discrete lines.  The test also showed a significant amount of calcium and magnesium, but no toxins were evident in well-washed material made from unpolluted ocean water.
To further prove that these materials are a different state of the precious elements mentioned above, it is possible to electroplate these elements out as precious metals.
People familiar with Hudson's process claim that the materials produced using these methods are similar to Hudson's ORME materials.


We do not recommend the ingestion of these materials since so little is known about them. This information is being provided so that scientific inquiry can commence into the nature of these materials. We realize that, despite recommendations to the contrary, some people will ingest these materials. With this in mind we offer the following information to minimize any possible adverse effects from ingesting these materials. Please read the WARNING and CAUTION sections.
Some people have ingested the m-state materials made by these methods. They suggest that benefits are most likely when dosage is kept small.
Three methods of making ORMUS are described in this document: the WET method, the DRY method, and the BOILING GOLD method. For the materials extracted by the wet and dry procedures, one teaspoon of material, morning and evening, has been found by them to be not harmful over several weeks' time. A much smaller dose, on the order of a few drops a day, would be more appropriate for the material produced by the boiling gold method. We believe that the m-state may be homeopathic, so a much smaller dose may be the safest -- such as 1/64 teaspoon diluted in one quart of pure water, taken two or three ounces once or twice a day.
David Hudson gave some information on dosage in his Dallas speech at:


You can find a discussion forum on the WhiteGold Web page. There you can post comments and questions on these procedures, and on ORMUS in general.
WhiteGold Web page:


Necessary Supplies
pH Paper or pH Meter
Wet Method
    1.  Starting Materials
Problems Encountered

Avoiding Problems


This document describes three methods of producing ORMUS: the WET method, the DRY method, and the BOILING GOLD method.
All three methods use a chemical lab technique called "measuring pH."  The pH of a solution is a measure of its acid/base ratio. You may remember testing pH with litmus paper in high school. pH values less than pH 7 indicate an acid, like distilled white vinegar.  pH 7 is neutral, like pure water.  Greater than pH 7 is alkaline, like lye.
ORMUS precipitates between pH 8.5 and 10.78.
The WET method produces the least "effective" material but is relatively simple to perform.
Here is the basic WET method in brief.  It will be discussed later in detail:
Here is the DRY method in brief:
And here is the BOILING GOLD method in brief:


A glass or stainless steel pot. If you use stainless-steel pots, check for steel particles in your precipitate. Although unlikely, this problem may occur if you use large amounts of HCl to lower the pH. Never use aluminum containers or utensils because aluminum will react with acids like HCl and alkalis like lye, and will poison you.
Distilled water from a grocery store.
A stainless steel spatula or knife for stirring, from a grocery store.  Never use aluminum containers or utensils because aluminum will react with acids like HCl and alkalis like lye, and will poison you.
A few glass jars.  Tall skinny ones work best.
Lye (sodium hydroxide or NaOH).  We will use the term "lye" in this document rather than "sodium hydroxide" or "NaOH" since it is shorter and more familiar to most people.  Grocery store lye, such as Lewis Red Devil Lye, is not as pure and uncontaminated as laboratory or food-grade lye.  We strongly recommend that laboratory or food grade sodium hydroxide be used if the m-state is intended for ingestion since grocery store lye may contain dangerous contaminants.  Note: Virtually no lye will be present in the final product so it will be safe to ingest.  In any case, lye is not toxic, and it is not caustic when sufficiently diluted (as in these methods).
HCl (hydrochloric acid or muriatic acid).  We will use the term "HCl" in this document rather than "hydrochloric acid" or "muriatic acid" since it is shorter.  You can use muriatic acid (31% HCl) from a hardware store, but laboratory, electronic or food-grade HCl is less likely to be contaminated.  We strongly recommend that laboratory, electronic or food grade hydrocholoric acid be used if the m-state is intended for ingestion since muriatic acid from a hardware store may contain dangerous contaminants.  The presence of iron as a contaminant in the acid may interfere with the m-state materials in some applications.
Three eyedropper bottles from a pharmacy.  An alternative to eyedroppers is squirt bottles made of HDPE.  Find them at a natural foods store or other store which sells bulk liquid products like vegetable oils or lotions.

A large 50 cc plastic syringe from a veterinary supply shop or a lab-supply house. Some suppliers are listed near the end of this document under LAB SUPPLIES.

pH paper or a pH meter.  You can get pH paper (pH 1 to 12) from a lab-supply company or a mining supply store.  Use new paper because old paper becomes inaccurate.  Some suppliers are listed near the end of this document under LAB SUPPLIES.


Some experimenters say not to rely on a pH meter because its readings vary with temperature and ionization.  Also, a meter costs much more than pH paper.  Many pH meter probes can be damaged by very strong acids or alkalis.  But some say that a pH meter is essential, for these reasons:

pH paper cannot track rapid changes in pH.
pH paper does not resolve pH readings finely enough.  It's hard to tell the difference between pH 9.5, 10.0, and 11.5.
pH meters are best used to get accurate readings between pH 8.5 and 10.78, which is the main range of concern in these methods.
pH meters can spot check any reading with a standard buffer solution.
A pH meter is more convenient.

Use only a meter that has an automatic temperature-correcting function up to 100 degrees C.


Clean your containers so that you'd feel safe drinking out of them.  Boil containers, syringes, siphons and so on before use to sterilize them.
Lye can damage the eyes by rendering the cornea opaque, a form of eye damage that is irreparable.  Lye can burn skin, clothes and eyes.  Work near a sink, faucet, or other source of wash water.  You might keep a spray bottle of distilled white vinegar handy to use against spills.
If you spill lye on your clothes or body, immediately wash it off with lots of water.  When working with lye, avoid touching your face or rubbing your eyes.  Do not handle lye around food. Use adequate ventilation such as a range hood.  Do not dump waste water on the ground.  Lye is generally safe to put down the drain, but don't mix it with any acid that may be in the drain as it can react explosively.
When working with lye, please wear goggles or a full-face visor (an industrial face protector), neoprene gloves, and a PVC lab apron.  Sources for this safety clothing are in the Appendix near the end of this document.
Keep children and pets away from the work area, and do not leave it unattended if children or pets are around.
Glass can shatter with hot liquids.  Pour boiling liquid from your heating container into a stainless steel mixing bowl to cool before pouring the liquid into a glass container.


Some starting materials produce a lot of precipitate, while others do not.  Listed below are materials that have been shown to produce some precipitate from the WET method:

Some municipal drinking water

Some hot springs water without sulfur

Trace Minerals Inland Sea Water


Some lake or river water whose bed or course is limestone.

Some well water.  Ground water is probably more likely to contain m-state than surface water (except for sea water).

Sea water and sea water reconstituted from certain brands of sea salt, especially from the Great Salt Lake.

Dead Sea water.

Certain brands of unrefined sea salt are as good as sea water: Celtic Gray Sea Salt (from health food stores) and Lima Atlantic Sea Salt (from some health food stores).  Add distilled water and use the WET method.  Filter the scum first.

The WET method performed on ocean or Dead Sea water produces eleven different m-state elements.
The following materials are ranked in order from most to least m-state content:
1. Dead Sea water; 2. Salt Lake water; 3. Ocean water; 4. Well water
Listed below are materials that have been found to produce little or no precipitate from the WET method:
Water from some alkali lakes (pH above 8.5).
Hot springs with sulfur (because sulfur reduces m-state to metal)
Mineral-free lake or river water

Dead Sea mineral salts that contain sulfur or sulfates, such as "Sea Mineral Bath from the Dead Sea" by Dead Sea Works Ltd. for Sea Minerals Co., and Trace Minerals Research "ConcenTrace Trace Mineral Drops" from the Great Salt Lake.

For the following methods to work, some researchers claim that magnesium or magnesium hydroxide -- Mg(OH)2 -- must be present in the starting material.  (Since the Boiling Gold method is effective without any magnesium, this claim will need to be tested.)  Sea water already has Mg(OH)2, so you don't need to add it to sea water.  Try your water first.  If you don't get any precipitate, you might add a teaspoon per gallon of Epsom salts to the starting material for its magnesium.  If you do add Epsom salts, the magnesium from them will be a large portion of the precipitate.
The following problems have been encountered by some folks who have made m-state for consumption:
Some people have gotten quite sick from consuming m-state made from sea water collected at a marina.  This water contained high levels of lead and other contaminants.
Other people have gotten quite sick from consuming m-state materials which were made improperly.  These materials were made without the use of pH test paper or meters and the resulting material contained toxic metals.  Please remember that old pH paper can become inaccurate. People have gotten sick from consuming m-state materials which contained bacteria because they were not sterilized or stored properly.
It is possible to bring the pH of your source material up too quickly, especially if you use lye in too high a concentration.  This could result in local areas of very high pH within your solution.  These high pH areas could allow toxic metals to precipitate and mix with your desired precipitate. M-state platinum might be considered toxic by some since it makes you quite ill if you consume alcohol.  No one has reported this effect from consuming m-state from sea water.
Some people have used Teflon-coated aluminum sauce pans for heating lye or lye water.  The Teflon got scratched and the aluminum started dissolving in the lye water producing hydrogen gas which could have exploded.  The liquid was contaminated with aluminum which is a poison.



Use sea water, reconstituted sea water made from sea salt or Dead Sea salt, or salt lake water.  In general, start with a clean and deep source of water.  Some people have gone out to sea in boats to collect sea water from 100 feet deep.
Generally avoid water that has lead, arsenic or other toxic elements in it.  Start with water that is drinkable except for salt content. Conduct an elemental and toxic analysis of questionable starting-material sources (such as seawater collected close to the shore, or near sources of industrial waste runoff).
Boiling in lye water kills bacteria but it does not destroy toxic metals or chemicals in your source water. Follow these instructions and slowly change the pH of your solution.
Avoid water with sulfur or sulfates in it because such water produces little or no m-state precipitate.
Never use aluminum containers or utensils because aluminum will react with acids like HCl and alkalis like lye, and could poison you.


 Wet Method Procedure
 How to Purify Your Precipitate -- Removing Mg(OH)2
  •  Method 1
  •  Method 2
  •  Method 3
  •  Method 4
  •  Dry Method
  •  Extra Supplies
  •  Holder For Filters
  •  Starting Materials
  •  Procedure
  •  Boiling Gold Method
  •  Extra Supplies
  •  Procedure

    Please read CAUTION!! and WARNING!! before proceeding.

    First you need to prepare a dilute lye solution.  Label an eyedropper bottle or squirt bottle "Lye-poison" so the bottle will not confused with something else.  Work in a sink so that any spills will be contained.  Lye gives off eye-stinging fumes when mixed with water.  To avoid inhaling fumes, hold your breath and wear goggles while doing the following procedure.

    Working over a sink, put 8 teaspoons of distilled water in a sturdy glass then stir in 1 teaspoon of lye.  Stir until the lye is dissolved.  Heat will be generated as the lye dissolves and the glass may get fairly hot.  You may want to close your eyes to avoid eye-stinging fumes, taking a peek periodically.

    Pour the lye solution into a labeled eyedropper bottle or squirt bottle.

    If you are using pH paper, tear off several 1/4" pieces and put them on a piece of white paper on a plate.

    For the best accuracy, recalibrate the pH paper throughout the day with changes in temperature and humidity, as well as day-to-day.  Buffer solutions of pH 4, 7 and 10 will help with this.  Sources of pH buffer solutions are listed near the end of this document under LAB SUPPLIES.

    If you are using dried sea minerals, mix 1/2 cup of dry material with 2 cups of distilled water.  This makes sea water.  Now proceed as described below:


    This experiment is an attempt to replicate the procedure described in Example 1 - Preparation of G-ORME, as given in the Australian patent application for an invention entitled Non-Metallic, Monoatomic Forms of Transitional Elements. (Document No. AU-A-36624/89). This document is based on a US patent application numbered 209,297, dated 21st June 1988 and 7th June 1988. The US application was not granted, and thus the inventor did not proceed further with this application in Australia.

    The procedure as published in the patent is said to convert the element gold from its normal metallic state to a newly discovered state, described by its inventor, David R. Hudson of Laveen Arizona, as an orbitally re-arranged monoatomic state, in which the element assumes various new properties. These are described as catalytic activity, special magnetic properties, resistance to sintering at high temperatures, and resistance to cyanide and aqua regia attack.

    Hudson appears to have first discussed his work in a public scientific forum at the 1st Conference on Low-Energy Transmutation, Texas A&M University, June 19, 1995. This presentation was reported in Infinite Energy Vol. 1 No. 3, p11, as follows:

    "Mr. D. Hudson (private researcher), "Orbital Rearrangement of Mono-atomic Elements (ORMES)."
    Hudson has been doing intensive experiments with gold, nickel, and copper. He has been able to demonstrate that some elements can be made "invisible" to most chemical measurements and then restored so that the elements are measurable. Huson showed copies of several articles, mainly from peer-reviewed literature and textbooks to indicate that there are some strange results that differ markedly from from standard accepted chemistry. For example, Hudson shows that when certain elements are reduced from metals (large arrays of atoms) to states where only a few atoms are clustered, then the normal metallic behavior of these elements is drastically changed. These experimental results are being investigated by other researchers working in the nano-materials area. Hudson says to get a metal out of the metallic cluster give the element something that it wants more than it wants itself. Two such separation elements are lithium and sodium."

    ORME Experiments (1996-1998)

    The process consists of dissolving an amount of metallic gold in aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric acid and nitric acid), performing a number of boildowns to dry salts, plus two neutralisation procedures using sodium hydroxide. The neutralisation procedure at step 9 is described as taking anything up to 3 days. A peristaltic pump head was fitted with a stepper motor controller, allowing this process to be automated by a program which takes information from the pH meter and operates the pump as required.

    The outcome of experiments conducted during 1997 and 1998 was that black precipitate invariably forms at step 10, an indication that the prior steps are not being carried out correctly. A reading of the patent suggests that two prerequisites (at least) are required for the process to succeed. The gold must be properly dissolved to as small a particle size as possible, and the neutralisation procedure at step 9 must be done extremely carefully. The major difference to these experiments, and those carried out by Parrish Chamberlain, is that (apart from the ineptitude of the experimenter) the gold used is refined gold obtained from a commercial source. Whether this has any effect on the process is not known.

    Step 1 of the process states that the metallic gold is to be dispersed in aqua regia. An informant suggested that the gold is required to be initially left in solution for at least a month in order to effect a greater reduction in particle size. This procedure was therefore carried out, however black precipitates were again obtained at step 10.

    It was noticed that when left for a long period, the gold chloride in solution tends to concentrate at the bottom of the bottle, perhaps hindering further dissolution of the particles. The suggestion was put forward that keeping the solution hot would help aid digestion. A flask and condenser were therefore obtained and the solution left at approximately 90 degrees centigrade for several weeks This procedure however met with failure. The hot aqua regia solution was found to severely etch the glassware. Solutions taken from the flask produced a white insoluble precipitate at the bottom of the beaker upon boildown. This precipitate is assumed to be a silicate material formed by a reaction between the aqua regia and the glassware. The flask and solutions were therefore discarded and attempts to carry out hot digestion abandoned.
    <>In order to carry out what is surmised to be the proper digestion the current method is to place the flasks containing the solutions on magnetic stirrers. Each flask contains two litres of aqua regia with 500 mg of gold. An FEP tube attached to the top of the flask allows ventilation to prevent pressure buildup in the flask. After one month on the stirrer, the contents of the flask are reduced to a dry salt as per step 1, fresh aqua regia added, and placed on the stirrer for another month. Whether this procedure is excessive or not is unknown, however  the salts obtained after boildowns using these solutions are noticably less clumpy in appearance.

    #21 10/6/98
    Solution 2, 184ml
    Start 4.30pm, end 7.00pm
    boiled dry

    #22 10/6/98
    Solution 2, 165ml
    Start 7.30pm, end 12.30am
    boiled dry

    #23 13/6/98
    Solution 1, 185ml
    Start 1.30pm, end 11.00pm
    boiled dry

    #24 15/6/98
    Solution 1, 175ml
    Start 2.00pm
    boiled dry

    (Note: Numbering starts at #21)

    The above record indicates the most serious problem in manually performing these experiments on a part-time basis. That is, it is difficult to keep watch on the process sufficiently in order to avoid boiling the solutions dry at the critical moment. The boildown operations are numerous, slow, tedious and prone to failure caused by the the tendency of the experimenter to fall asleep. It was therefore felt necessary to automate this part of this process.

    Prior to Expt #21, an error was discovered in the make-up of the 6N HCl used in prior experiments. This was previously assumed to be 3 parts H2O to 1 part 37% HCl. This is incorrect, the value now used is 4 parts H2O to 6 parts 37% HCl.

    ORME Experiments (1996)

    The following is a description of experiments carried out during May-June 1996 by a student food analyst at a commercial analytical laboratory. The firm prefers not to have its name associated with the subject. The procedure was carried out twice, and reported to the moderated internet forum (

    1. Using a Sartorious electronic balance exactly 0.0500 g (50 mg) of pure metallic gold were weighed into a 400 ml tall beaker.

    2. 50 ml of aqua regia were added and the beaker placed on a hot plate to start the reaction. Once the reaction started the beaker was removed and the gold allowed to dissolve. (50 ml of acid only were added because this is sufficient enough to dissolve the small amount of gold).

    3. The solution was boiled down to approx 5 ml and some saturated gold chloride crystals

    began to form. 60 ml of hydrochloric acid were added, then the solution boiled down to 5ml.

    4. Steps three was repeated twice more. This time the acids were allowed to evaporate off until a dry solid was obtained (being careful not to scorch). Steps 2, 3 and 4 were repeated once more.

    5. To this solid 150 ml of 6M HCl were added and allowed to boil down to 10ml, then two more lots of 6 M HCl were added and boiled down to 10 ml. (If brown fumes are still visible when boiling it may be necessary to continue adding the 6M acid, this drives of any NO2 fumes and excess nitric acid). The last treatment was allowed to boil dry and at this stage an orange-red coloured crystal was acquired with a tinge of luminescent green. (This indicated to be gold chloride or chloroauric acid)

    6. A solution of sodium chloride in distilled water was then prepared. 0.3 g AR NaCl was used in 300 ml of water. (0.3g NaCl = 20 mole of Na to 1 mole Au). This solution was added to the dried crystals and allowed to sit for about two hours so that the reaction from gold chloride to sodium aurochloride could be completed. (This reaction is not noticable).

    7. The solution is evaporated down to dry salts and then 200 ml of distilled water is added, the solution was then boiled down again and 150 ml of 6 M HCl is added and boiled down again to dry solids.

    8. 300 ml of distilled water is added to the solids and allowed to sit for 30 minutes so that hydration of the salt can occur.

    9. Using an ORION 720A electrode junction pH meter and a stirring plate the pH of the solution was adjusted slowly using 0.5 N NaOH until it reached exactly pH 7.000 and allowed to continue stirring. The pH gradually drops due to molecular displacement. When the pH was stabilised 0.5 NaOH was again added drop by drop until the pH of the solution was at 7.000. This process was continued until the pH was stable at 7.000. This entire process takes about 6 hours and then the solution is left overnight.

    10. The solution was then boiled down to approx. 10 ml and 10 ml of AR HNO3 was

    added, the result was clustered luminescent white crystals thus the production of sodium auro nitrate. The solution is allowed to boil until the crystals are dry.

    11. Step 10 was repeated.

    12. 10 ml of distilled water was added to remove excess HNO3 from the crystals, this was repeated until no brown fumes were evident.

    13. Again the pH is adjusted to pH 7.00 and NaAu should result as NO3 dissociates to form HNO3 in the solution. After about 10 mins a cloudy white precipitate forms in the solution.

    14. A 45 micron bacteriological filter was used to filter off the solution, no dark precipitates were noticable.

    15. The filter paper was transferred into a vacuum oven with a 25 kpa(g) at 120 degrees Centigrade for two hours. The result was a light/medium grey coloured solid.

    16. A device was constructed to anneal the solid. This consisted of a piece of 4" dia. mild steel tube x 5" long. A plate was welded across one end to form a base, and an inlet tube welded to the base. Another plate, with a 1/8" bleeder hole, was used to form the top, held in place with a weight. A bottle of standard welding argon was connected to the inlet tube and turned on. The device was placed on a gas camping stove and heated until a temperature over 300 degrees Centigrade was indicated by the melting of a lead mass. The solid was placed inside on a crucible and heated with constantly flowing argon for two hours. The solid was then dark grey in color.

    Testing and Analysis:

    The sample was placed into aqua regia and did not dissolve. Testing for sodium and gold using a GBC-2197 atomic absorption spectrophotometer showed that these metals were not present.

    Visual Observations:

    Although the material was still slightly grey, when observed under the microscope at 10x1000 magnification the solid appears to be a colloid of clear crystals. When in nitric acid the grey solid disperses and becomes white thus indicating that the HAu is in the grey form attracting oxygen from the air and bonding to the hydrogen, the addition of the acid removes the oxygen and changes the solid’s property.

    Under 10 x 1000 magnification the white crystals in the acid are singular and dispersed, they appear to be double pointed longish clear crystals similar to quartz. As the acid evaporates the crystals begin to reform colloids.

    An attempt is being made to obtain photographs of these two observations. Also electron microscopy analysis to determine its supposed composition and perhaps further photographs.


    (03-JUL-98 The attempt to obtain photographs and other analyses did not proceed due to lack of time, money, spillages etc.  The experimental procedure is quite lengthy, and Parrish was required by his employer to go back to his normal work. Thus it was not possible to repeat these experiments further at that time.  The above report provoked the following responses:)

    06-JUN-96  Joe Champion, the serious side ---

    I would like to thank James for posting the following. Here is where one can find mistakes that are common in laboratory procedures. This is not to be negative to Mr. Chamberlain, but two fundimental errors challenge the hours of work that he put into this experiment. In an attempt not to bore the members of the forum(s), I will attempt to explain in a non-technical script.  When one attempts an experiment, they must consider all possible errors. It is quite obvious when you examine the detailed work of Mr. Chamberlain he failed to account for standard contamication of acids and distilled water. Yes, he had a material that was present, it was converted to a white material that would not dissolve in aqua regia. This material could be numerous things, but not gold.

    Where is the gold? The gold was in the solution that was filtered off in step 14. The problem with such tests is you must establish a baseline. That is accomplish the entire procedure by heating, adding, boiling without the gold. Record these results and you have a basis for contamination of chemicals. Then accomplish the experiment. Also, if you look at the total quanitity of liquids and the fact that he only started with 50 milligrams of gold, all types of errors could be present. The white powder was probably a calcium compound. By the exactness of his report, this would be the most logical. Also, calcium is a normal contaminate of many acids and distilled water. I ran this buy a couple of mr cronies and they agree, that even though enormous efforts were spent on this experiment, there is nothing that would indicate anything out of the realm.

    Now if Mr. Chamberlain would of distilled the remaining liquid that he discarded and there was nothing but NaOH, it would be a different ball game. But he didn't. Yelp, it's the old adage of the gold goes down the drain.

    08-AUG-96?  Reply to Joe Champion from Anti-sceptic Society:

    Further to the comment from Joe Champion that our sample obtained from Hudson’s patent method may have consisted of contaminants, I provide specifications for the nitric acid and sodium chloride used. These are analytical grade reagents, and as can be seen from the specifications, the level of impurities is very low. I was not able to obtain specifications for other materials used in the experiment, but these were of the same grade.

    The filtrate remaining from the process was boiled down to 25 ml to see if any precipitates were formed. None were observed. The concentrated filtrate was then sent for analysis at Sharp & Howells Pty Ltd, a firm of analytical, consulting and industrial chemists in Port Melbourne.

    According to the assay received, the gold content was 760 ppm, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Thus there are 760 / 1000 x 25 = 19 mg of gold in the filtrate. This appears consistent with Hudson’s process leaving half the original amount of gold ie. 25 mg in solution.

    To summarize the results, no gold or sodium was found present in the sample produced, and approximately the expected amount of gold was found in the residual filtrate.


    03-JUL-98 --- The gold used in the above experiments was taken from a piece of gold nugget found by Parrish while on holiday in the Kimberley Ranges. Since this was only non-AR grade ingredient used, this presumably would have been the main source of any contamination. Parrish states that the gold he used seemed to be quite pure, but did not do an assay of it. Therefore, the "white crystals in the acid.. (that) appear to be double pointed longish clear crystals similar to quartz", may have looked like quartz because they were quartz.

    Against this interpretation, however, it should be noted that any insoluble material (of the quantity amounting to the final product) is quite noticable in the bottom of the beaker during the many boildowns that are required. The amount of product obtained, if it in fact was due entirely to impurities in the gold, would have amounted to over 50-80% of the original 50 mg. The gold in this case would have been noticeably impure to the naked eye. Any calcium from the water etc, could not have formed an insoluble product. A major defect of the experiments were that the product was not weighed, which could have provided more useful information.

    It was concluded that while the above experiments were not proof that the process worked, they seemed promising enough for further research.