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USP # 4,389,981
Hydrogen Gas Injector System for Internal
Abstract -- System and apparatus for the controlled
of a volatile hydrogen gas with oxygen and other non-combustible gasses
in a combustion system. In a preferred arrangement the source of
gas is a hydrogen source, and the non-combustible gasses are the
gasses of the combustion system in a closed loop arrangement. Specific
structure for the controlled mixing of the gasses, the fuel flow
and safety are disclosed.
CROSS REFERENCES AND BACKGROUND
There is disclosed in my co-pending U.S. patent application Ser.
802,807 filed Sept. 16, 1981 for a Hydrogen-Generator, a generating
converting water into hydrogen and oxygen gasses. In that system and
the hydrogen atoms are disocciated from a water molecule by the
of a non-regulated, non-filtered, low-power, direct current voltage
potential applied to two non-oxidizing similar metal plates having
passing there-between. The sub-atomic action is enhanced by pulsing the
non-regulated and non-filtered direct current voltage. The apparatus
structural configurations in alternative embodiments for segregating
generated hydrogen gas from the oxygen gas.
In my co-pending patent application filed May 5, 1981, U.S. Ser.
262,744 now abandoned for Hydrogen-Airdation Processor, non-volatile
non-combustible gasses are controlled in a mixing stage with a volatile
gas. The hydrogen airdation processor system utilizes a rotational
gas displacement system to transfer, meter, mix, and pressurize the
gasses. In the gas transformation process, ambient air is passed
an open flame gas-burner system to eliminate gasses and other present
Thereafter the non-combustible gas-mixture is cooled, filtered for
removal, and mechanically mixed with a pre-determined amount of
gas. There results a new synthetic gas. The synthetic gas formation
also volume meters and determines the proper gas-mixing ratio for
the desired burn-rate of hydrogen gas. The rotational mechanical gas
system in that process determines the volume-amount of synthetic gas to
The above-noted hydrogen airdation processor, of my co-pending
is a multi-stage system having utility in special applications. Whereas
the hydrogen generator system of my other mentioned co-pending
does disclose a very simple and unique hydrogen generator.
In my co-pending patent application Ser. No. 315,945, filed Oct.
1981 there is disclosed a combustion system having utility in a
drive system. Particularly in one instance to drive a piston in an
device. There is shown a hydrogen generator for developing hydrogen
and perhaps other non-volatile gasses such as oxygen and nitrogen. The
hydrogen gas with the attendant non-volatile gasses are fed via a line
to a controlled air intake system. The combined hydrogen, non-volatile
gasses, and the air after inter-mixing are fed to a combustion chamber
where it is ignited. The exhaust gasses of the combustion chamber are
in a closed loop arrangement to the mixing chamber for the mixture of
and non-combustible gasses. Particular applications and structural
of the system are disclosed.
SUMMARY OF INVENTION
The system of the present invention in its most preferred
is for a combustion system utilizing hydrogen gas; particularly to
a piston in an automobile device. The system utilizes a hydrogen
for developing hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas and other non-volatile
are fed to a mixing chamber also having oxygen fed thereto. The mixture
is controlled to regulate the burning temperature; that is, to lower
temperature velocity of the hydrogen gas to that of the commercial
The hydrogen gas feed line to the combustion chamber includes a fine
control gas flow valve. An air intake is the source of oxygen and it
includes a variable valve. The exhaust gasses from the combustion
are utilized in a controlled manner as the non-combustible gasses.
The hydrogen generator is improved upon to include a holding tank
provide a source of start-up fuel. Also, the hydrogen gas generator
a switch to the power source operable from one position to another
upon a pressure sensing switch on the combustion chamber.
The simplified structure includes a series of one-way valves,
valves, and quenching apparatus. The combination of apparatus comprises
the complete assembly for converting the standard automobile engine
gasoline (or other fuels) to the hydrogen gas mixture.
It is accordingly a principal object of the present invention to
a combustion system of gasses combined from a source of hydrogen and
Another object of the invention is to provide such a combustion
that intermixes the hydrogen and non-combustible gasses in a controlled
manner and thereby control the combustion temperature.
A further object of the invention is to provide such a combustion
that controls the fuel flow to the combustion chamber in s system and
particularly adapted to hydrogen gas.
Still other objects and features of the present invention will
apparent from the following detailed description when taken in
with the drawings in which:
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a mechanical schematic illustration partly in block form
the present invention in its most preferred embodiment.
FIG. 2 is a block schematic illustration of the preferred embodiment of
the hydrogen injector system of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is the fine linear fuel flow control shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is crossectional illustration of the complete fuel injector
in an automobile utilizing the concepts of the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic drawing in a top view of the fuel injector system
utilized in the preferred embodiment.
FIG. 6 is a crossectional side view of the fuel injector system in the
FIG. 7 is a side view of the fuel mixing chamber.
FIG. 8 is a top view of the air intake valve to fuel mixing chamber.
FIG. 9 is a comparison of the burning velocity of hydrogen with
to other fuels.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF INVENTION TAKEN WITH DRAWINGS
Referring to FIG. 1 the complete overall gas mixing and fuel flow
is illustrated together for utilization in a combustion engine
an engine utilized in an automobile.
With specific reference to FIG. 1, the hydrogen source 10 is the
generator disclosed and described in my co-pending application, supra.
The container 10 is an enclosure for a water bath 2. Immersed in the
2 is an array of plates 3 as further described in my co-pending
supra. Applied to plates 3 is a source of direct current potential via
electrical inlet 27. The upper portion 7 of the container 10 is a
storage area maintaining a predetermined amount of pressure. In this
for start up there will be an immediate flow of hydrogen gas. To
the expended water the generator provides a continuous water source 1.
Thereafter, the generator is operable as described in the aforesaid
The safety valve 28 is rupturable upon excessive gas build-up.
the switch 26 is a gas pressure switch to maintain a predetermined gas
pressure level about a regulated low-volume.
The generated hydrogen gas 4 is fed from the one-way check valve
via pipe 5 to a gas mixing chamber 20, wherein the hydrogen gas is
with non-combustible gasses via pipe line 9 from a source hereinafter
In the event one way valve 75 should fail and there be a return
that might ignite the hydrogen gas 4 in the storage area 7 of hydrogen
generator 10, quenching assembly 76 will quench the spark and prevent
With particular reference to FIG. 2 the hydrogen gas via pipe line
and non-combustible gasses via pipe line 9 are fed to a carburator
system 20 also having an ambient air intake 14.
The hydrogen gas 4 is fed via line 5 through nozzle 11 in a spray
in to the trap area 46 of the mixing chamber 20. Nozzle 11 has an
smaller than the plate openings in the quenching assembly 37, thereby
flash back in the event of sparking. The non-volatile gasses are
into mixing chamber 20 trap area 47 in a jet spray 17 via nozzle 13.
assembly 39 is operable much in the same manner as quenching assembly
The ambient air is, in the preferred arrangement, the source of
necessary for the combustion of the hydrogen gas. Further, as disclosed
in the aforesaid co-pending application the non-volatile gasses are in
fact the exhaust gasses in a closed loop system. It is to be understood
that the oxygen and/or the non-combustible gasses can be from an
With continued reference to FIG. 2 the gas trap area 47 is a
size. In that hydrogen is lighter than air, the hydrogen will rise and
become entrapped in the are 47. The size of area 47 is sufficient to
enough hydrogen gas for instant ignition upon start up of the
It will be noted that the hydrogen gas is injected in the
region of the trap area 47. Hydrogen rises at a much greater velocity
oxygen or non-combustible gasses; perhaps three times or greater.
if the hydrogen gas entered the trap area 47 (mixing area) at its
region the hydrogen gas would rise so rapidly that the air could not
with the oxygen. With the structure shown in FIG. 2 of the trap area
the hydrogen gas is forced downwardly into the air intake 15. That is,
the hydrogen gas is forced downwardly into the upwardly forced air and
readily mixed therewith.
The ratio of the ambient air (oxygen) 14 and the non-combustible
via line 9 is a controlled ratio and determined by the particular
Once the proper combustion rate is determined by the adjustment of
95 for varying the amount of the non-combustible gas and the adjustment
of valve 45 for varying the amount of the ambient air, the ratio is
In a system wherein the non-combustible gasses are the exhaust
of the engine in a closed loop-arrangement, and wherein the air intake
is under the control of the engine, the flow velocity and hence the
mixture, is maintained by the acceleration of the engine.
The mixture of air with non-combustible gasses becomes the carrier
the hydrogen gas. That is, the hydrogen gas is superimposed on the
mixture. By varying the amount of hydrogen gas superimposed on the
mixture, the r.p.m. of the engine is controlled.
Reference is made to FIG. 3 illustrating precisely in a side view
the fine linear fuel flow control 53. The hydrogen gas 4 enters chamber
43 via gas inlet 41. The hydrogen gas passes from chamber 43. The
gas passes from chamber 43 to chamber 47 via port or opening 42. The
of gas passing form chamber 43 to chamber 47 is controlled by
the port opening 42.
The port opening is controlled by the insertion there through the
tapered pin 73. The blunt end of pin 73 is fixed to rod 71. Rod 71
by supporting O-ring 75, through opening 81 in housing 30, to manual
The spring 49 retains the rod 71 is a fixed position relative to
pin 73 and opening 42. Upon actuating the mechanism 83, the pin 73 will
recede from the opening 42 there by increasing the amount of gas
from chamber 43 to chamber 47.
The stops 67 and 69 maintain spring 49 in its stable position. The
of the pin 73 in a fixed position relative to opening 42 is adjusted
threaded nuts 63 and 67 on threaded rod 61. That is, the threaded
controls the idle speed or permits the minimum amount of gas to pass
chamber 43 to chamber 47 for continuous operation of the combustion
Referring now to FIG. 8 there is illustrated the air adjustment
for manipulating the amount of air passing into the mixing chamber 20.
The closure 21 mounted on plate 18 has an opening 17 on end 11 thereof.
Slideably mounted over said opening 17 is a plate control 42. The
of the plate relative to the opening 17 is controlled by the position
the control rod 19 passing through a grommet 12 to control line. In
of malfunction that may cause combustion of gasses in mixing chamber
release valve 24 will rupture.
With reference now to FIG. 4, in the event hydrogen gas 4 should
in the mixing chamber 20 to excessive pressure, an escape tube 36
to a port 34 on the automobile hood 32 permits the excess hydrogen gas
to safely escape to the atmosphere. In the event of a malfunction that
may cause combustion in the mixing chamber 20, the pressure relief
33 will rupture expelling hydrogen gas without combustion.
In the constructed arrangement of FIG. 1, there is illustrated a
control system that may be retrofitted to an existing automobile
combustion engine without changing or modifying automobile's design
The flow of the hydrogen volatile gas is, of course, critical;
there is incorporated in line 5 a gas flow valve 53 (FIG. 1) to adjust
the hydrogen flow. Gas flow valve is described in detail with reference
to FIG. 3.
The intake air 14 may be in a carburator arrangement with an
adjustment 55 that adjusts the plate 42 opening and also more fully
with reference to FIG. 8.
To maintain constant pressure in hydrogen gas storage 7 in the
operation of the engine, the gas flow control valve is responsive to
electrical shut-off control 33. The constant pressure permits an
supply of gas on start up and during certain periods of running time in
The switch 33 is in turn responsive to the vacuum control switch
During running of the engine vacuum will be built up which in turn
switch 33 open by contact with vacuum switch 60 through lead 60a. When
the engine is not running the vacuum will decrease to zero and through
switch 60 will cause electrical switch 33 to shut off cutting off the
of hydrogen gas to the control valve 53.
As low-voltage direct current is applied to safety valve 28,
29 is activated. The solenoid applies a control voltage to the hydrogen
generator exciter 3 via terminal 27 through pressure switch 26. As the
electrical power activates electric solenoid 29, hydrogen gas is caused
to pass through flow adjustment valve 16 and then outlet pipe 5 for
The pressure differential hydrogen gas output to gas mixing chamber 20
is for example 30 lbs. to 15 lbs. Once hydrogen generator 10 reaches an
optimum gas pressure level, pressure switch 26 shuts off electrical
to the hydrogen excitors. If the chamber pressure exceeds a
level, the safety release valve 28 is activated disconnecting the
current and thereby shutting down the entire system for safety
With particular reference now to FIG. 6 there is illustrated the
injector system in a side crossectional view and to FIG. 5 in a top
The structural apparatus incorporated in the preferred embodiment
housing 90 having air intakes 14a and 14e. The air passes through
91 around the components 14b and 14c and then to intake 14d of the
chamber 20. The hydrogen enters via line 5 via quenching plates 37 and
into the mixing chamber 20. The non-volatile gasses pass via line 9 to
the quenching plates 39 and into the mixing chamber 20.
FIG. 7 illustrates the mechanical arrangement of components
the overall structure of the mixing chamber 20 and shown independantly
in the other figures.
Returning to FIG. 1 there is illustrated the non-volatile gas line
passing through mixture pump 91 by engine pulley 93. Valve 95 controls
the rate of flow.
Also driven by pulley 93 is pump 96 having line 85 connected to an
resevoir 92 and valve 87 and finally to mixing chamber 20. As a
matter, such as in a non-oil lubricated engine, lubricating fluid such
as oil 81 is sprayed in the chamber 20, via oil supply line 85 for
There has been several publications in the past year or so delving
the properties of Hydrogen gas, its potential use, generating systems,
and safety. One such publication is "Selected Properties of Hydrogen"
Design Data) issued February 1981 by the National Bureau of Standards.
These publications are primarily concerned with the elaborate and
processes for generating hydrogen. Equally so, they are concerned with
the very limited use of hydrogen gas because of its extremely high
velocities. This in turn reflects the danger in the practical use of
With reference to the graph of the Appendix A, it is seen that the
velocities of alcohol, propane, methane, gasoline, natural gas, and
oil are in the range of minimum 35 to maximum 45. Further, the graph
that the burning velocity of hydrogen gas is in the range of 265
to 325 maximum. In simple terms in the order of 7.5 times the velocity
of ordinary commercial fuels.
Because of the hydrogen gas unusually high burning velocity,
gas has been ruled out, by these prior investigators as a substitute
Furhter, even if an engine could be designed to accomodate such high
the danger of explosion would eliminate any thoughts of commercial use.
The present invention, as above described, has resolved the
criterea for the use of hydrogen gas in a standard commercial engine.
the cost in the generation of hydrogen gas, as noted in the
co-pending patent applications, is most minimal. Water with no
or metals is used. Also, as note in the aforementioned co-pending
applications, is the reduction in the hydrogen gas velocity. These
applications not only teach the reduction in velocity, but teach the
of the velocity of the hydrogen gas.
In the preferred embodiment, practical apparatus adapting the
generator to a combustion engine is described. The apparatus linearly
the hydrogen gas flow to a mixing chamber mixing with a controlled
of non-combustible gas oxygen, hence, the reduction in the hydrogen gas
velocity. The reduction in the hydrogen gas velocity makes the use of
as safe as other fuels.
In more practical terms the ordinary internal combustion engine of
size or type of fuel, is retrofitted to be operable with only water as
a fuel source. Hydrogen gas is generated from the water without the use
of chemicals or metals and at a very low voltage. The burning velocity
of the hydrogen gas has been reduced to that of conventional fuels.
every component or step in the process has one or more safety valves or
features thereby making the hydrogen gas system safer than that of
In the above description the terms non-volatile and non-combustile
used. It is to be understood they are intended to be the same; that is,
simply, gas that will not burn.
Again, the term storage has been used, primarily with respect to
hydrogen storage area 7. It is not intended that the term "storage" be
taken literally--in fact it is not storage, but a temporary holding
With respect to area 7, this area retains a sufficient amount of
for immediate start-up.
Other terms, features, apparatus, and the such have been described
reference to a preferred embodiment. It is to be understood
and alternatives can be had without departing from the spirit and scope
of the invention.
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